Emergency rescue of chemical accidents

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Chemical accident emergency rescue refers to the fact that when chemical dangerous goods cause or may cause numerous casualties and other major social hazards due to various reasons, they are organized to control the source of the hazard in a timely manner, rescue the victim, guide the protection of the people, organize the withdrawal, and remove the harmful consequences. Rescue activities. With the development of the chemical industry, the scale of production is expanding. In the event of an accident, the scope of damage will become greater and greater, and the degree of damage will become deeper and deeper. In the early stages of an accident, if it is not controlled in time, a small accident will evolve into a catastrophic event. , will cause huge losses to life and property.

I. Basic Tasks of Chemical Accident Emergency Rescue

Chemical accident emergency rescue is a social disaster reduction and relief work carried out in China in recent years. Its basic tasks are:

Controlling the hazard sources and controlling the hazards that cause the accidents in a timely manner is the primary task of emergency rescue work. Only timely control of the hazard sources and the prevention of accidents can be carried out in a timely and effective manner. Rescuing victims to rescue victims is an important task for emergency relief. In emergency rescue operations, timely, orderly and effective implementation of on-site emergency and safe transfer of the wounded is the key to reducing casualties and reducing accident losses. Instructing the masses to protect and organizing the masses to withdraw Because chemical accidents occur suddenly, spread rapidly, involve a wide range, and cause great harm, the masses should be promptly directed and organized to take various measures to protect themselves and to withdraw rapidly from the danger zone or may be harmed. area. In the process of evacuation, the masses should be actively organized to carry out self-rescue and mutual relief work. Do a good job on-the-spot clearing and elimination to eliminate toxic and hazardous substances that are harmful to the accidents and substances that may continue to cause harm to people and the environment. Organize personnel to remove them in time to eliminate harmful consequences and prevent continued harm to people and to the environment. Pollution. For the fire that occurred, we must promptly organize the force to wash away.

Second, the basic form, classification and emergency network of chemical accident emergency rescue

Chemical accident emergency rescue can take two forms of self-rescue and social rescue according to the scope of the accident and the degree of harm.

(1) Self-help by the accident unit

The self-rescue of the accident unit is the most basic and most important form of rescue for chemical accident emergency rescue. This is because the accident unit knows best the accident site situation. Even if the accident damage has been extended to the area outside the accident unit, the accident unit still needs to fully organize self-rescue, especially Control the source of danger as soon as possible.

Chemical production, use, storage, transportation and other units must set up emergency rescue professional teams to be responsible for emergency rescue at the time of accidents. At the same time, the production unit must provide emergency services to the company's products. Once the product has an accident anywhere in the country and abroad, it can contact the manufacturer in a timely manner through the provided emergency telephone number to obtain emergency treatment information or get help from its emergency rescue personnel.

(2) Social Assistance

At present, the State Economic and Trade Commission has established a national chemical accident emergency rescue system, established a chemical accident emergency rescue command center and set up a chemical accident emergency first aid rescue center by region, opened a chemical accident emergency consultation hotline 0532-3889090, and is responsible for the chemical accident emergency. Rescue work.

The emergency rescue of chemical accidents is divided into four levels according to the rescue content:

Level 0: provide emergency rescue information consultation for chemical accidents within 8 hours;
Level I: provide information on emergency response to chemical accidents within 24 hours;
Level II: While providing 24-hour emergency information and rescue consultations for chemical accidents, send experts to the scene to guide the rescue;
Level III: On the basis of Level II, dispatch emergency rescue teams and equipment to participate in on-site rescue.

At present, China has established eight major emergency rescue and rescue centers, which are mainly distributed in China's chemical-developed regions. With the implementation of the registration of chemicals, various regions have successively established local registration offices for chemicals, and will take up the emergency rescue work in various regions. The emergency network is more complete, response time is shorter, and accident hazards will be more effectively controlled.

III. Organization and Implementation of Chemical Accident Emergency Rescue

The chemical accident emergency rescue generally includes the following aspects: alarming and receiving alarms, dispatching of emergency rescue teams, implementation of emergency treatment, that is, emergency evacuation, on-site emergency treatment, overflow or leakage treatment, and fire control.

1. Accident alarm and alarm

The timely and accurate accident warning is the key link to control the accident timely. In the event of a chemical accident, on-site personnel must take countermeasures in accordance with the accident plans prepared by their respective companies, minimize the spread of the accident, and report to the relevant departments. The leaders of the accident leaders should decide on the form of emergency rescue based on the location of the accident and the development of the situation: Is the unit self-helping or adopting social assistance? For those major or catastrophic chemical accidents and chemical accidents that rely on the strength of the unit cannot control or can not eliminate the consequences of the accident in time, social assistance should be sought as soon as possible in order to control the development of the accident as soon as possible.

In order to make an alarm work for accidents, companies should do the following work:

Establish an appropriate alarm response system; Various communication tools should strengthen routine maintenance to keep it in good condition; Establish standard alarm methods and procedures; Place contact maps and contact numbers in a prominent place for skilled attendants to handle; Alarm training in emergency situations, including alarm procedures and alarm content.

2. Launch emergency rescue teams

After receiving the accident alarm, each competent unit shall promptly organize an emergency rescue professional team, rush to the scene, quickly implement rescue on the basis of self-protection, control the development of the accident, and rescue the wounded from the dangerous area and organize the masses to evacuate and evacuation. , Do a good job of removing dangerous chemicals.

Keeping troops for a thousand days, using one hour. Only by fully preparing all the emergency rescue preparations in peacetime can we ensure that accidents do not panic when disasters occur, and we do not disorderly, judge correctly, and deal with them correctly. The preparations for emergency rescue are mainly focused on the implementation of the organization, personnel, and equipment, and the establishment of a practical working system so that the emergency rescue work can be standardized. Therefore, all companies should set up a "command leading group" and "emergency rescue professional team" for emergency rescue of chemical accidents in advance. Organize, train and drill emergency rescue expert teams and rescue professional teams; promote and educate the masses about self-rescue and mutual rescue knowledge; work with relevant departments to manage and use emergency rescue equipment and equipment. The main components and responsibilities of the emergency rescue team are shown in the table.

Emergency rescue team composition and main responsibility table

composition

main duty

Emergency repair team Responsible for on-site emergency rescue operations in emergency:
·Leakage control, leakage treatment;
· Equipment repair work;
· Resume production maintenance operations.
Fire Group Take responsibility for fire fighting, decontamination and rescue of the wounded.
Security alert group · Arrange safety precautions to ensure that the site is in order;
· Implement traffic control to ensure the smooth flow of on-site and factory roads;
• Strengthen the security work and prohibit the passage of unrelated personnel and vehicles;
Rescue evacuation group Responsible for rescue and evacuation of personnel and equipment supplies around the site.
Medical Care Team · Organize ambulance vehicles and medical personnel and equipment into designated locations;
· Organize the scene to rescue the wounded;
·Protection and antivirus treatment.
Material Supply Group · Inform the relevant warehouses that fire-fighting materials such as sandbags, sampan, foam and cement are ready and labor protection supplies;
· Prepare the vehicle and supply the required materials to the site.

Note: Waiting for assistance from the emergency team or the outside world will cause minor accidents to become catastrophic. Therefore, each employee is responsible for the emergency rescue of chemical accidents. He should receive basic training according to the emergency plan so that he can take correct actions in the event of a chemical accident. Action.

3. Emergency evacuation

1) Establish an alert area

After the accident, a warning zone should be established based on the spread of chemical leakage or the range of flame radiant heat involved, and traffic control should be implemented on the main road leading to the accident site. There are several things to note when setting up an alert area:

Warning signs should be set on the borders of the warning area and there should be special warnings. Except firefighting, emergency treatment personnel and personnel who must stick to the post, other personnel are prohibited from entering the warning zone. When the spilled chemical is flammable, fire should be strictly prohibited in the area.

2) Emergency evacuation

Quickly evacuated persons in the alert zone and in the polluted area that were unrelated to the accident emergency treatment to reduce unnecessary casualties. When emergency evacuation should be noted:

If the accidental substance is toxic, personal protective equipment or simple and effective protective measures are required to be worn, and corresponding monitoring measures are taken. Should be shifted upwind; clear guidance and evacuation of escorted personnel to safe areas, and set up a post on the evacuation or evacuation route to indicate direction. Do not stay in low places. To find out if anyone stays in the polluted area and the fire area.

In order for the evacuation to proceed smoothly, each workshop should have at least two unimpeded emergency exits with clear signs.

4. On-site emergency

At the scene of the accident, chemicals may cause harm to the human body: poisoning, asphyxiation, frostbite, chemical burns, burns, etc. Both the patient and the rescuer need proper protection during first aid.

Live First Aid Notes:

Select favorable terrain to set up first-aid points; Protect yourself and the individual who is wounded and wounded; Prevent secondary damage; At least 2-3 people should act collectively to take care of each other; The rescue equipment used must have explosion-proof function;

When someone on the site is harmed by chemicals, the following treatment should be carried out immediately:

Quickly remove the patient from the scene to fresh air. Oxygen is given when breathing is difficult; artificial respiration is performed immediately when breathing is stopped; cardiac arrest occurs and a heart massage is performed immediately. When the skin is contaminated, remove the contaminated clothes and rinse with flowing clean water. Rinse promptly, thoroughly and repeatedly. When the head burns, pay attention to the cleaning of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. When a person suffers from frostbite, it should be quickly rewarmed. The method of rewarming is to use a constant temperature hot water soaking at 40°C-42°C to raise the temperature to near normal. When gently massage the frostbite, care should be taken not to scratch the damaged skin to prevent infection. When a person has a burn, they should quickly remove the patient's clothes, rinse with running water to cool, cover the wound surface with a clean cloth, to avoid contamination of the wound surface; do not arbitrarily break the blisters. When the patient is thirsty, he or she may drink enough water or salty drinks. Oral, according to the nature of the material, symptomatic treatment. After on-site treatment, they should be quickly escorted to the hospital for treatment.

Note: Before emergency treatment, rescue workers should be convinced that the environment in which the injured person is located is safe. In addition, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and washing of contaminated skin or eyes should be avoided.

5. Leakage treatment

After the leakage of dangerous chemicals, it not only pollutes the environment, but also causes harm to the human body. As for combustible materials, it may also cause fire and explosion. Therefore, leakage accidents should be handled promptly and correctly to prevent the accident from expanding.

Leakage treatment generally includes two major parts: leakage source control and leakage disposal.

1) Precautions for leakage treatment

When entering a leak site for disposal, the following items should be noted:

Personnel entering the site must be equipped with the necessary personal protective equipment. If the spill is flammable and explosive, fire should be prohibited. It is strictly forbidden to act alone in emergency treatment. There must be guardians, and if necessary, use water guns and water cannons to cover.

2) Leakage source control

If possible, spills or leaks can be eliminated by controlling the source of the leak. The following methods can be used:

Under the instruction of the plant dispatching room, the method of shutting down the relevant valves, stopping the work, or adopting a process of changing the process, taking the material off-line, partial parking, cycling, load reduction, and the like. After the container has leaked, measures should be taken to repair and plug the gap to prevent further leakage of chemicals, which is critical to the entire emergency response. The success of plugging can depend on several factors: the degree of danger near the leak, the size of the leak, the actual or potential pressure at the leak, and the nature of the leaked material.

3) Leakage treatment

Site spills should be covered, contained, diluted, and disposed of in a timely manner so that the spills can be safely and reliably disposed of to prevent secondary accidents.

There are four main methods for the disposal of leaks:

Embankment interception: If the chemical is liquid, it will spread everywhere when it leaks to the ground and it is difficult to collect and handle it. For this purpose, it is necessary to cut off the embankment or drain it to a safe place. When liquid leakage occurs in the tank area, the rainwater valve must be closed in time to prevent the material from flowing out along the open ditch.

6. Fire fighting

The use of fire extinguishing agents and extinguishing methods should be selected for each type of chemical. Take plugging or isolation measures when necessary to prevent the expansion of secondary disasters. After the fire has been eliminated, people must still be sent to guardianship to clean up the scene and eliminate the remaining fire.

Fire precautions for several special chemicals are as follows:

When fighting liquefied gas fires, avoid blindly extinguishing the fire and maintain stable combustion without taking measures to stop leaks. Otherwise, a large amount of combustible gas leaks out and mixes with air, and it will explode in the event of a fire, and the consequences will be unthinkable. For explosives fire, do not cover with sand, so as not to increase the explosive power of explosives; In addition to the stacking fire of explosives, the water flow should be suspended, to avoid strong water flow directly to the stacking, so as not to cause another explosion after the collapse of the stack . For wet fires, flammable materials such as water, foam, and acid-base must not be used to save. The fire extinguishing of oxidants and organic peroxides is more complicated and should be based on specific analysis of specific substances. When fighting fires of toxic and corrosive products, use low-pressure water or mist water as much as possible to avoid spills of corrosive chemicals and poisonous chemicals. In the case of acids or alkaline corrosion products, it is advisable to administer appropriate neutralizers for dilution and neutralization. Combustible solids and spontaneously combustible items can generally be saved with water and foam. As long as they control the burning range, they can be extinguished gradually. However, there are a few special methods for fighting flammable solids and spontaneous combustion. Such as 2,4-dinitroanisole, dinitronaphthalene, naphthalene, etc. are easily flammable flammable solids, heat release flammable vapor, with the air can form explosive mixtures, especially in the interior, prone to deflagration. In the process of extinguishing, misty water should be sprayed over and around the burning area from time to time, and all surrounding sources of fire should be eliminated.

Note: The fire fighting of chemical fires should be carried out by a professional fire brigade. Other personnel shall not act blindly. After the fire brigade arrives, it will introduce the material media and cooperate with the rescue.

The emergency treatment process is not step by step, but according to the actual situation as far as possible simultaneously, such as the leakage of hazardous chemicals, the source of leakage should be cut off as much as possible at the same time as the alarm.

Chemical accidents are characterized by sudden, rapid proliferation, long duration, and wide coverage. In the event of a chemical accident, it often causes confusion, and if it is not handled properly, it can cause secondary disasters. Therefore, companies should formulate and improve chemical accident emergency plans. Let every worker know the emergency plan, carry out regular training and education, and improve the staff's ability to cope with sudden disasters, so that disasters do not panic, do not chaos, correct judgment, correct treatment, enhance staff awareness of self-protection, reduce casualties.

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