Grid-connected PV power plant loss calculation

Grid-connected PV power plant loss calculation

First, photovoltaic array loss

1, detuning loss

Photovoltaic module power "1+1 is less than 2".

Because the current of PV modules has constant current, after the components are connected in series, “small is not big”, ie “barrel effect”, so the components with good current consistency must be selected in series, and the string with good voltage consistency must be selected in parallel.

2, the tilt angle of the PV array

The tilt angle is generally calculated from the range of 10 degrees to 90 degrees. The calculated input data is inaccurate or the calculation method is inaccurate, which easily leads to a decrease in light receiving efficiency. At the same time may also be affected by dust, snow and other factors.

3, shading loss

Photovoltaic arrays in large power stations may be partially blocked due to terrain, buildings, etc. In a long battery string, if a certain battery is completely shielded, there will be no voltage, but because it is in the string, it must also carry current and has its own internal resistance, so it becomes a load, causing local loss. And fever. The method to eliminate the masking loss is usually to divide a certain length of battery into several parts with a bypass diode. By bypassing the shrouded component diodes, only the part is bypassed, so that the battery string voltage and current can be proportionally lost without losing more power.

4, temperature loss

The temperature characteristics of photovoltaic modules are that the higher the temperature, the lower the voltage. In general, the photovoltaic cell voltage drops by 0.5% for every 1 degree increase in operating temperature than the reference temperature.

Second, the maximum power tracking loss

MPPT maximum power tracking, there is a process to find the maximum power, and perfect algorithm can't achieve 100% optimal.

Third, DC cable loss

Large DC current, loss is inevitable. The way to reduce this loss is to increase the cross-sectional area of ​​the cable (reducing the cable resistance), and to increase the number of string batteries (rising DC voltage).

Fourth, inverter loss

At present, the efficiency of domestic grid-connected inverters is generally between 92% and 97%. Calculated at an electricity price of 1.5 yuan/kWh, the inverter efficiency is 2%, and the annual power generation will decrease by 1.6%.

V. AC cable loss

As with DC cable losses, the solution is the same.

Sixth, transformer loss

At present, the efficiency of ordinary transformers is generally 96%. The greater the scale of the power station, the greater the impact of its efficiency.

Conclusion: To increase the efficiency of the overall power plant is to pay attention to the loss of each link, in addition to the above loss, there are cleanliness of the surface of photovoltaic modules, and the efficiency of the selected reactive power compensation and so on. General station efficiency range is 70%~90%.

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