Firefighters' self-protection in fire fighting and rescue

For a long time, fire fighters have been constantly defending state property and people's livelihood in the long-term battle of fire-fighting rescues. They have created a song of dedication and dedication. In order to avoid unnecessary sacrifices and minimize the number of casualties in fire fighting and rescue operations, Xiaobian Xiaobian discusses how players can strengthen their self-protection in fire rescue operations.

Common situations that cause firefighters’ casualties in fire rescue operations

1. Vehicle accidents are mostly on the way to and from the disaster, due to sickness, speed, lack of concentration, unresponsiveness, unfamiliar driving conditions or driving privileged cars, hero cars, narrow roads, frozen roads, speeding, directions Failures and other reasons lead to traffic accidents and result in non-combat reductions.
2. Heavy smoke hot gas flow hazard Large smoke and hot air currents are the most common phenomenon in the fire field, especially with the continuous development of the construction industry, the appearance of buildings is getting higher and higher, and wood, plastics, wall paper, carpets, etc. It is widely used in interior decoration of buildings, and even some furniture is made of plastic. Once a fire occurs in a building, these materials will generate a large amount of toxic gases and fumes during the combustion process, which will consume a lot of air. If the exhaust conditions are not good, toxic gases and smoke will fill the entire space and cause oxygen deficiency or poisoning. , threatening the safety of firefighters.
3. Most of the main traps in the building are traps that are easy to collapse in steel structures, mud walls are easy to collapse, there are many falling objects in the air, fire elevators fail, and indoor shafts can easily lead to mistakes.
4. Explosion and Leakage Accidents The explosion and leakage of multiple chemical dangerous goods are the "big enemy" of casualties. Before the explosion, if the rescue personnel cannot leave the site, serious deaths will result.
5. Tank explosion or boiling damage The fire in large oil tanks is not only fast, it burns fiercely, and it is difficult to extinguish. During the first phase, the fire tank is easily deformed and collapsed, and adjacent tanks are prone to re-explosion under the effect of high-temperature radiant heat. If the liquid flow bonfire is not properly disposed of, it will result in casualties. The second is that in the process of fighting some heavy tank fires, it may lead to casualties due to sudden spillage and splashing when a large number of fire extinguishing water jets or tank bottom water is heated to a boiling degree and converted to gas.
6. Protective equipment failure Many firefighters equipped with necessary protective equipment is necessary to ensure their own safety and fire rescue work, but often due to sparse maintenance of protective equipment, coupled with poor technical training and improper operation, etc., resulting in casualties.
7. The "deflagration" of the fire is dangerously detonating. When a room is filled with combustible gas or in a smoldering state, a large amount of air enters at the instant of opening doors and windows, and deflagration occurs in the event of a fire, although only for a moment, but for people. Security poses a threat and even causes death.
8. Potential hazards in electrical installations All electrical wiring and electrical equipment used in the fire should be considered dangerous. Because, through the human body, electricity can cause the heart muscles to shrink dramatically and stop breathing. Current can cause the body's organs to be burned. In many cases, when a fire brigade uses ladders or working at heights, it extinguishes fires in the vicinity of electrical equipment fires or electrical equipment, and is killed or injured by current exposure.

Strengthening the Basic Measures for "Self-protection" in Firefighting and Rescue

1. The construction of the pilot team should be strengthened. The main measures: First, the selection and use of drivers should be strengthened. Second, the driver’s safety education should be strengthened. Third, in the process of driving, the next rider must not interfere. Four should urge the driver to do more maintenance at ordinary times, conscientiously implement the day of safety activities, and carefully organize the field survey and study of road water sources and fire fighting operations plans.
2. The formulation and familiarization of the disposal plan should be strengthened. This is the key to whether or not the disposal action can be attacked. Because firefighting forces have large mobility, some commanders are not familiar with or knowledgeable about the objects, locations, and disposal plans for the disposal of chemical dangerous goods and fire fighting after they are transferred to new positions. Therefore, this requires all levels of commanders of the firefighting forces, especially special agents, to constantly in-depth production, storage, transportation, and use of chemical dangerous goods enterprises to understand the inventory, characteristics, and disposal methods of various types of chemical dangerous goods, and to key enterprises. It is necessary to formulate preplans, especially for key units that involve leakage, fires and explosions, which involve a wide range of hazards and are likely to cause group deaths and injuries. In addition, it is necessary to formulate a detailed preplan for disposal and conduct drills in due course. At the same time, a chemical dangerous goods inquiry system should also be established and entered into the computer together with the disposal plan to implement scientific decision-making assistance. Only in this way can we be prepared to fight with confidence.
3. The reconnaissance of the scene of disaster accidents should be strengthened. Only by paying attention to and strengthening on-site reconnaissance, actually understanding the scene of the accident, and grasping the symptoms of “mutation” at the site, can an accurate judgment be formed so that corresponding tactics and protective measures can be taken decisively.
4. The “retreat” strategy should be used scientifically. In case of a sudden change in the situation on the scene of fire fighting and rescue, in order to avoid unnecessary casualties, the wise implementation of the strategy “withdrawal” is conducive to the tactical offensive afterwards. Then, how can we achieve the desired effect through the “retreat” strategy in the last resort?

(1) The commander must not only establish the correct concept of retreat consciousness in the fire scene, but also must have rich experience, wisdom, boldness, and superb command art. When the personal safety of the combatants is threatened, when the retreat is issued, a “retreat” is issued. The order should be decisive.
(2) Once forced to withdraw, it must resolutely obey orders and actions must be fast and orderly. And do not withdraw without withdrawal, back and not chaos.
(3) After the retreating fire commander, he must establish a "counterattack" consciousness.
(4) When the following conditions occur, the retreat shall be ordered in a timely manner: first, when the building is deformed, cracks increase, local collapses, sounds of cracking, and signs of mortar wall collapse are found; second, oil and its products and others During the fire suppression of flammable and explosive chemical raw material storage tanks, sudden changes in wind direction threaten the adjacent storage tanks and equipment directly and must be adjusted during deployment. Thirdly, flames occur during the combustion process of petroleum and its products and other flammable and explosive chemical raw material storage tanks. Suddenly turned white, brightened, the tank quivered, and issued a "quack" call sound and other explosive precursors; Fourth, boiling oil smoke lighter, issued a "pop" noise and other boiling, spray When the precursors are splashed; Fifth, new and larger leaks occur during the disposal of chemical accidents, and adjustments must be made during deployment; Sixthly, in the fire fighting and rescue operations, the water supply is suddenly interrupted and normal water supply cannot be restored immediately. When a major danger is about to occur, Seventh, the firefighters' personal protective equipment fails and cannot be eliminated immediately.
(5) It is necessary to strengthen the study of fire-fighting rescue business theory and to study the theory that there is no revolution, there is no revolutionary action; if you want to shed less blood in the war, you will have to sweat more often. This is the importance and necessity for modern firefighters to attach importance to and strengthen the study and discussion of the fire fighting rescue business.
(6) The construction of fire fighting and rescue equipment should be strengthened. According to the actual needs of the area to participate in fire rescue and rescue work, it is necessary to actively use the brain, think about methods, find opportunities, and strive for the local government and relevant departments to attach importance to, support and solve the supporting equipment for personal protection. jobs. In particular, personal protective equipment and fire-fighting communications equipment must undergo continuous technical improvements and functional improvements to facilitate operation and use. At the same time, it is necessary to speed up the research and development of the use of fire-fighting robots in fire-fighting and rescue operations to reduce the risk and intensity of firefighters in fire-fighting and rescue operations.

Calling it, strengthening the self-protection work of the firefighters, avoiding and reducing the occurrence of casualties on the fire field by commanders and fighters should be an important topic for firefighters at all levels.

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